# Garner's algorithm¶

A consequence of the Chinese Remainder Theorem is, that we can represent big numbers using an array of small integers. For example, let $p$ be the product of the first $1000$ primes. $p$ has around $3000$ digits.

Any number $a$ less than $p$ can be represented as an array $a_1, \ldots, a_k$, where $a_i \equiv a \pmod{p_i}$. But to do this we obviously need to know how to get back the number $a$ from its representation. One way is discussed in the article about the Chinese Remainder Theorem.

In this article we discuss an alternative, Garner's Algorithm, which can also be used for this purpose.

We can represent the number $a$ in the mixed radix representation:

$$a = x_1 + x_2 p_1 + x_3 p_1 p_2 + \ldots + x_k p_1 \cdots p_{k-1} \text{ with }x_i \in [0, p_i)$$

A mixed radix representation is a positional numeral system, that's a generalization of the typical number systems, like the binary numeral system or the decimal numeral system. For instance the decimal numeral system is a positional numeral system with the radix (or base) 10. Every a number is represented as a string of digits $d_1 d_2 d_3 \dots d_n$ between $0$ and $9$, and E.g. the string $415$ represents the number $4 \cdot 10^2 + 1 \cdot 10^1 + 5 \cdot 10^0$. In general the string of digits $d_1 d_2 d_3 \dots d_n$ represents the number $d_1 b^{n-1} + d_2 b^{n-2} + \cdots + d_n b^0$ in the positional numeral system with radix $b$.

In a mixed radix system, we don't have one radix any more. The base varies from position to position.

## Garner's algorithm¶

Garner's algorithm computes the digits $x_1, \ldots, x_k$. Notice, that the digits are relatively small. The digit $x_i$ is an integer between $0$ and $p_i - 1$.

Let $r_{ij}$ denote the inverse of $p_i$ modulo $p_j$

$$r_{ij} = (p_i)^{-1} \pmod{p_j}$$

which can be found using the algorithm described in Modular Inverse.

Substituting $a$ from the mixed radix representation into the first congruence equation we obtain

$$a_1 \equiv x_1 \pmod{p_1}.$$

Substituting into the second equation yields

$$a_2 \equiv x_1 + x_2 p_1 \pmod{p_2},$$

which can be rewritten by subtracting $x_1$ and dividing by $p_1$ to get

$$\begin{array}{rclr} a_2 - x_1 &\equiv& x_2 p_1 &\pmod{p_2} \\ (a_2 - x_1) r_{12} &\equiv& x_2 &\pmod{p_2} \\ x_2 &\equiv& (a_2 - x_1) r_{12} &\pmod{p_2} \end{array}$$

Similarly we get that

$$x_3 \equiv ((a_3 - x_1) r_{13} - x_2) r_{23} \pmod{p_3}.$$

Now, we can clearly see an emerging pattern, which can be expressed by the following code:

for (int i = 0; i < k; ++i) {
x[i] = a[i];
for (int j = 0; j < i; ++j) {
x[i] = r[j][i] * (x[i] - x[j]);

x[i] = x[i] % p[i];
if (x[i] < 0)
x[i] += p[i];
}
}


So we learned how to calculate digits $x_i$ in $O(k^2)$ time. The number $a$ can now be calculated using the previously mentioned formula

$$a = x_1 + x_2 \cdot p_1 + x_3 \cdot p_1 \cdot p_2 + \ldots + x_k \cdot p_1 \cdots p_{k-1}$$

It is worth noting that in practice, we almost probably need to compute the answer $a$ using Arbitrary-Precision Arithmetic, but the digits $x_i$ (because they are small) can usually be calculated using built-in types, and therefore Garner's algorithm is very efficient.

## Implementation of Garner's Algorithm¶

It is convenient to implement this algorithm using Java, because it has built-in support for large numbers through the BigInteger class.

Here we show an implementation that can store big numbers in the form of a set of congruence equations. It supports addition, subtraction and multiplication. And with Garner's algorithm we can convert the set of equations into the unique integer. In this code, we take 100 prime numbers greater than $10^9$, which allows representing numbers as large as $10^{900}$.

final int SZ = 100;
int pr[] = new int[SZ];
int r[][] = new int[SZ][SZ];

void init() {
for (int x = 1000 * 1000 * 1000, i = 0; i < SZ; ++x)
if (BigInteger.valueOf(x).isProbablePrime(100))
pr[i++] = x;

for (int i = 0; i < SZ; ++i)
for (int j = i + 1; j < SZ; ++j)
r[i][j] =
BigInteger.valueOf(pr[i]).modInverse(BigInteger.valueOf(pr[j])).intValue();
}

class Number {
int a[] = new int[SZ];

public Number() {
}

public Number(int n) {
for (int i = 0; i < SZ; ++i)
a[i] = n % pr[i];
}

public Number(BigInteger n) {
for (int i = 0; i < SZ; ++i)
a[i] = n.mod(BigInteger.valueOf(pr[i])).intValue();
}

Number result = new Number();
for (int i = 0; i < SZ; ++i)
result.a[i] = (a[i] + n.a[i]) % pr[i];
return result;
}

public Number subtract(Number n) {
Number result = new Number();
for (int i = 0; i < SZ; ++i)
result.a[i] = (a[i] - n.a[i] + pr[i]) % pr[i];
return result;
}

public Number multiply(Number n) {
Number result = new Number();
for (int i = 0; i < SZ; ++i)
result.a[i] = (int)((a[i] * 1l * n.a[i]) % pr[i]);
return result;
}

public BigInteger bigIntegerValue(boolean can_be_negative) {
BigInteger result = BigInteger.ZERO, mult = BigInteger.ONE;
int x[] = new int[SZ];
for (int i = 0; i < SZ; ++i) {
x[i] = a[i];
for (int j = 0; j < i; ++j) {
long cur = (x[i] - x[j]) * 1l * r[j][i];
x[i] = (int)((cur % pr[i] + pr[i]) % pr[i]);
}